Science in early childhood classrooms: content and process (2023)

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SEED Papers: Released Fall 2010Science in early childhood classrooms: content and processKaren is worth it
Science Education Center
Center for Educational Development, Inc.
Newton, Massachusetts

There is a growing understanding and recognition of the power of children's early thinking and learning, as well as a belief that science can be a particularly important domain in early childhood, serving not only to build a foundation for understanding subsequent science, but also to develop important skills. and attitudes to learn. This article addresses the question of what should be the nature of science teaching and learning in the early childhood classroom. It proposes four basic ideas: (1) doing science is a natural and critical part of children's early learning; (2) children's curiosity about the natural world is a powerful catalyst for their work and play; (3) with proper guidance, this natural curiosity and need to make sense of the world becomes the foundation for beginning to use inquiry skills to explore basic, material phenomena in the world around children; and (4) this early scientific exploration can be a rich context in which children can use and develop other important skills, including working together, basic large and small motor control, language, and early mathematical understanding. The article describes a framework for learning through inquiry and criteria for selecting appropriate content for young children. It concludes with a discussion of the implications for the classroom, with a focus on child-centered curriculum, the role of materials, the use of time and space, the critical role of discussion and representation, and the role of the teacher

In a world replete with the products of scientific research, scientific literacy has become a necessity for everyone. Everyone needs to use scientific information to make decisions that come up every day. Everyone must be able to intelligently engage in public discourse and debate important issues related to science and technology. And everyone deserves to share in the excitement and personal fulfillment that can come from understanding and learning about the natural world.(National Research Council, 1996, p. 1)

The need to focus on science in the early childhood classroom is based on a number of factors currently affecting the early childhood community. The first is the growing understanding and recognition of the power of children's early learning and thinking. Research and practice suggest that children have much greater learning potential than previously thought, and therefore early childhood settings should provide richer and more challenging learning environments. In these environments, guided by trained teachers, children's experiences in the early years can have a significant impact on their later learning. Furthermore, science can be a particularly important domain in early childhood, serving not only to build a foundation for later scientific understanding, but also to develop important learning skills and attitudes. A recent publication from the National Research Council supports this argument:

Children who have a broad base of knowledge experience in a specific domain (eg, in mathematics or in an area of ​​science) make faster progress in acquiring more complex skills…. Since these [mathematics and sciences] are "privileged domains", that is, domains in which children have a natural propensity to learn, experiment and explore, they allow to encourage and extend the limits of learning in which children already actively participate. 🇧🇷 Developing and expanding children's interest is particularly important in the preschool years, when attention and self-regulation are fledgling skills. (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2001, pp. 8-9)

This growing understanding of the value of science in early childhood education comes at a time when the number and diversity of children in child care and the number of hours each child spends in such settings is increasing. An increasing number of children live in poverty. More and more are growing up in single-parent homes and in homes where both parents work. The media have become commonplace in the lives of young people. Therefore, experiences that provide direct manipulation and experience with objects, materials, and phenomena, such as playing in the sink, raising a pet, or going to the playground, are less likely to occur in the home. Increasingly, it is in the early childhood classroom that this kind of experience with the natural world should take place, allowing all children to develop inquiry and problem-solving experiences and the foundation for understanding basic concepts of science. sciences.

Science is both a body of knowledge that represents the current understanding of natural systems and the process by which that body of knowledge was established and is continually extended, refined, and revised. Both elements are essential: you cannot progress in science without understanding both. Similarly, in learning science, one must understand both the body of knowledge and the process by which that knowledge is established, extended, refined, and revised.(Duschl, Schweingruber y Shouse, 2007, pág. 26)

Before moving on to a more in-depth discussion of science for young people, it is helpful to describe our vision of science. The goal of science is to understand the natural world through a process known as scientific inquiry. Scientific knowledge helps us explain the world around us, such as why water evaporates and plants grow in certain places, what causes disease, and how electricity works. Scientific knowledge can help us predict what might happen: a hurricane might hit the coast; the flu will be severe this winter. Scientific knowledge can also help solve problems such as impure water or the spread of diseases. Science can guide technological development to meet our needs and interests, such as traveling at high speeds and talking on the phone.

Science means different things to different people. Some think it is a list of facts memorized at school. Others understand it as a body of knowledge, which includes facts, concepts, principles, laws, theories, and models that explain how the natural world works. But, as the quote above makes clear, science is more than knowledge and information; it is also a process of study and discovery, what we call scientific inquiry or scientific practice. According to the National Science Education standards, "Scientific inquiry refers to the various ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose evidence-based explanations of their work" (National Council for Scientific Research, 1996, p. 2. 3) . Many scientists also talk about the fun and creativity of doing science. A famous scientist, Richard Feynman, once said about his work: “Why did I enjoy doing this (physics)? I used to joke about it. I used to do what I wanted to do... [depending on] whether it was interesting and fun for me to play” (Feynman, 1997, p. 48).

Some people, when they think of people who do science, picture laboratories full of scientists in white coats mixing chemicals and looking through microscopes. These images are real, but there are other images of scientists charting the course of a hurricane, studying the behavior of wolves, looking for comets in the sky. But scientists are not the only people doing science. Many jobs involve science, such as an electrician, horticulturist, architect, and auto mechanic. And people of all ages learn about the world through actions that begin to approach scientific practice; For example, when a hobby gardener asks, "How much light does my geranium need to flower well?" he experiments with different locations and observes the results. . These activities, carried out by both scientists and non-scientists, whether in the laboratory, in the field or at home, have in common the active use of basic research tools in the service of understanding how the world works. Children and adults, experts and beginners all share the need to have these tools on hand as they develop their understanding of the world.

(Video) Science in Early Childhood Education - INTRODUCTION: What is Science?

May 12:Today I asked the children at the snail table to draw pictures of the snails. At first, Christine was reluctant, saying that she didn't want to draw, she just wanted to play with the snails. I gave him a choice sosaying that he could draw snails or play in a different area. She said, ok then, she'd draw it. Her drawings of her snails involved many zigzag lines, and I tried to understand what they represented to her. Then after a while I found out that the zigzags were the paths the snail moved along. So at lunchtime, I arranged for the kids near the escargot table to sit together and joined them. And we talk about snails. Christine talked about how the snail feels when she walks on her arm ("a little sticky and slimy, a little slippery"). Christine said that a kind of "slime" comes out of the bottom that makes the snail move; Ena got up and demonstrated that the snail moves its tail/butt off of her, saying that she pushed it. Delmy said that the snail walks like us, but only on two legs. Joanna said that she walks slowly and demonstrated walking with two fingers lightly and slowly across the table; and Juan said that the snail runs fast with many feet.

May 16:Ever since Christine drew her zigzag path and we had our snail talk at lunch, I've been thinking of ways to get the kids to think more about how snails move. So, I had the idea of ​​covering a table with easel paper and having the children follow the path of some snails with a pencil and see the shape of the footprints they made. At first, Christine just wanted to play with the snails and I told her that she was fine, but when she saw the other children drawing different snails, she wanted to join in too. After a while, they used yarn to trace the snail tracks and ended up with lines and loops of different lengths.

Excerpts from Cindy Hoisington's journal (reprinted with permission)

These notes provide a picture of science teaching and learning in the early childhood classroom, in which teachers and children engage in investigations of scientific phenomena: animal behaviors, and more specifically, the behavior of snails. They suggest the potential of children from 3 to 5 years of age to participate in scientific practices. These notes also provide a small window into science for young children, based on several beliefs that have guided my work: (1) doing science is a natural and critical part of children's early learning; (2) children's curiosity about the natural world is a powerful catalyst for their work and play; (3) with proper guidance, this natural curiosity and need to make sense of the world becomes the foundation for beginning to use inquiry skills to explore basic, material phenomena in the world around children; and (4) this early scientific exploration can be a rich context in which children can use and develop other important skills, including working together, basic large and small motor control, language, and early mathematical understanding.

Children entering school already possess substantial knowledge of the natural world, much of which is implicit… Contrary to older views, children are not concrete and simplistic thinkers…. Research shows that children's thinking is surprisingly sophisticated... Children can use a wide range of reasoning processes that form the basis of scientific thinking, even if their experience varies and they have much more to learn.(Duschl, Schweingruber y Shouse, 2007, págs. 2-3)

Science content for young children is a sophisticated interaction between concepts, scientific reasoning, the nature of science, and doing science. It is not primarily a data science. While facts are important, children need to begin to understand basic concepts and how they connect to and apply to the world in which they live. And thought processes and scientific skills are important too. In our curriculum development work for teachers, we equally focus on scientific inquiry and the nature of science and content: core concepts and the themes through which they are explored. In the teaching and learning process they are inseparable, but here I analyze them separately.

Scientific inquiry and the nature of science.

The phrase “children are scientists by nature” is one we often hear. Their curiosity and need to make the world a more predictable place certainly leads them to explore and draw conclusions and theories from their experiences. But left to themselves, they are not natural scientists. Children need guidance and structure to turn their natural curiosity and activity into something more scientific. They need to practice science, engage in rich scientific research.

In our work, we use a simple inquiry learning cycle (Worth & Grollman, 2003, p. 19) to provide a guiding framework for teachers as they facilitate children's investigations (Figure 1). The cycle begins with a long engagement period in which children explore the phenomenon and the selected materials, experiencing what they are and can do, questioning them, raising doubts and sharing ideas. This is followed by a more guided step as issues are identified that can be further investigated. Some of these may be questions from the children, others may be presented by the teacher, but their goal is to start the process of more focused and in-depth explorations involving forecasting, planning, data collection, and recording; organize experiences; and look for patterns and relationships that can eventually be shared and from which new questions can arise. This structure is neither rigid nor linear, hence the many arrows. And although it is used here to suggest a scaffolding for inquiry-based science teaching and learning, it is very similar to the way scientists work and, interestingly, how children learn.

Science in early childhood classrooms: content and process (1)

Scientific inquiry offers children the opportunity to develop a variety of skills, either explicitly or implicitly. The following is one such list:

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  • Explore objects, materials and events.
  • Ask questions.
  • Make careful observations.
  • Participate in simple investigations.
  • Describe (including shape, size, number), compare, classify, classify, and classify.
  • Record observations using words, pictures, tables, and graphs.
  • Use a variety of simple tools to extend the observations.
  • Identify patterns and relationships.
  • Develop explanations and experimental ideas.
  • Work collaboratively with others.
  • Share and discuss ideas and hear new perspectives.

This description of the practice of doing science is quite different from some of the scientific work that is evident in many classrooms, where there may be a science table on which interesting objects and materials lie, along with observation and measurement tools, such as magnifying glasses. and scales. . . The work often stops there, and little is given to the observations children make and the questions they raise. Another form of science is activity-based science, in which children engage in a variety of activities that generate excitement and interest but rarely lead to deeper thought. There are a plethora of science activity books that support this form of science in the classroom. Thematic units and projects are one more vehicle for scientific work in the classroom. These can be rich and challenging; however, they may not have a scientific approach. Transportation or a neighborhood study are typical examples that have the potential to engage children in interesting science, but often focus more on social studies concepts. If these projects or topics really engage students in science, care must be taken to ensure that science is cutting edge and that integration with other subjects is appropriate and related to science.

scientific content

With one of the science practices guiding how we approach scientific inquiry in the early childhood classroom, we turn to the question of science content for this age group. There are many phenomena to explore, many questions to explore, many basic concepts to present, and many topics to choose from, so rather than making a list of possible topics and themes, the following are key criteria to guide decisions about the selection of topics.

At the heart of inquiry-based science is the direct exploration of phenomena and materials. Thus, the first criterion is that the phenomena selected for young children should be available for direct exploration and drawn from the environment in which they live. The study of snails is an example of exploration that meets these criteria. Others include light and shadow, moving objects, structures, and the life cycles of plants and animals. Examples of some that don't meet these criteria include popular themes like dinosaurs or space travel. While these are often created by children because they are part of the media environment around them, they are not appropriate content for inquiry-based science in the classroom because they do not present the opportunity for children's direct exploration and even ideas. simpler explanations. They are problematic for development. Other themes that are often chosen in early childhood classrooms, such as the rainforest or arctic animals (polar bears and penguins), can be based on appropriate concepts (habitat, physical characteristics, and adaptation of animals), but also they lack the possibility of a direct discussion. commitment. No need to delete topics like these. They can be the subject of major drama, elaborate discussion, and exploration using books and other secondary sources. The problem arises when they take time away from or replace scientific, inquiry-based experiences.

The second criterion is that the concepts underlying the children's work are concepts relevant to science. For example, in snail farming, the underlying concept is animal behavior and how behaviors relate to the physical structure and the way an animal meets its needs. Such experience provides a foundation from which children will gradually develop an understanding of adaptation and evolution. The study of shadows is another example, where children's experiences build a foundation for understanding a key concept about light: that it travels in a straight line. Working with balls on ramps is another example where expert-led experiments build a foundation for further understanding of forces and motion.

A third criterion is that the focus of science is on concepts that are developmentally appropriate and can be explored from multiple perspectives, in depth, and over time. When children have many and varied opportunities to explore a phenomenon, they reach the final stages of inquiry with a rich set of experiences on which to base their reflections, their search for patterns and relationships, and their developing theories. In our example of the snails, the teacher focuses the children's attention first on the description. But the next step could be to compare the movement of the snails with that of an earthworm and an insect. This can be continued by observing their own movements and those of other familiar animals and an ongoing discussion of similarities and differences and how movement relates to where an animal lives and how it gets its food. In contrast to this depth and breadth, there are experiences with phenomena such as magnets that are very engaging, but once children have seen what they are doing, there is little else to explore. With a variety of experiences, children are more likely to think about the connections between themselves, challenge their naive ideas, and develop new ones.

Equally important, the third criterion is that the phenomena, concepts, and themes must be attractive and interesting to children AND their teachers.

While not a criterion for selecting content for an individual unit, the year-round science program should reflect a balance between life and physical sciences. For many reasons, teachers are becoming more comfortable with the life sciences and moving away from the physical sciences. This bypasses explorations of deep interest to children and robs them of the challenge and excitement of experimentation. Life science research is different from physical science research in that the former is more observational and develops slowly over time. Research in the physical sciences is more experimental with immediate results. Both are important, so it is the balance that is important in an early childhood science program.

January 14:Groundwater remains one of the room's favorite hubs. I love to see how children get involved filling glasses, emptying glasses, moving water from one compartment to another in the groundwater.

January 19:It was too cold for the kids to go outside today, so the kids in my small group made a clay project. The theme of the project was to make things that could hold water. Tonya made a pot. Alex made a vase. Sam made a bowl. Ben made a pancake and rolled it up. When I asked him what he was doing, he said: "a pipe". Tonya was quick to point out that the pipes don't hold water, but Ben didn't care. The idea of ​​making a pipe for the water to pass through, instead of a container to store the water, piqued her interest, and also everyone else in the group. And suddenly, all the children were making pipes!

January 20:The children in my small group asked if they could continue making clay pipes today, so we did. It was Tonya's idea to roll the clay into wooden cylinders, then remove them so there is a hole for the water to pass through, and they all did the same. After completing each tube, they told me where to connect it, looking very carefully to see if a bigger hole needed to be drilled so the water wouldn't get trapped. They can really imagine how the water will move. Later, Sam and Ben worked on making a long pipe. They wanted water to come out of both ends at the same time, so Sam suggested drilling a hole in the middle of the top so they could add another pipe there. I asked him where this idea came from. He stopped for a minute and said, "I was riding my bike very, very fast, and it made me think of water coming down the pipe." All those tubes connected to each other are quite a sight. The children even gave it a name: they call it the "City of Waters".

(Video) Early Childhood Education Teaching Strategies

January 31:During free choice, the children continue to spend a lot of time at the water table, using the tees and connectors, exploring how the water rises and falls, and around the water wire wall. It's almost as if the children's groundwater explorations are “feeding” their work with Water Town. At the same time, his work at Water Town feeds into his groundwater work. After all, it is at the water table that they can try out new ideas and possibilities that can bring Water Town back.

Excerpts from Sue Steinsieck's Teacher's Journal (reprinted with permission)

There are many implications for the classroom given this view of science. Here I will briefly address science in the child-centered curriculum, the role of materials, the use of time and space, the critical role of discussion and representation, and the role of the teacher.

Science in the child-centered curriculum

There are many definitions of “child-centered” curriculum that fall on a continuum. On the one hand, there is the belief that much of the curriculum focuses on children's ideas and questions. It is co-constructed by the child and the teacher. At the other extreme is a structured program that involves young children, except during "free time." The reality of a good science curriculum is that it falls between these extremes. The basic phenomena and concepts are determined by the teacher, perhaps because of an interest that he has observed in the classroom, but it does not have to be that way. Once a phenomenon is introduced and children begin their explorations, their questions can guide much of what follows.

From that perspective, the question to ask is not "Whose question is it?" but rather, "Are the children engaged?" Children need to own the content, but it doesn't necessarily have to be started by them. In the example above, water was the teacher's scientific focus. But the idea of ​​the pipes and the City of Waters was clearly for children.

science materials

Selection and access to materials are fundamental to science. It is through the materials that children confront and manipulate the phenomenon in question. As far as possible, materials should be open, transparent, and selected because they allow children to focus on important aspects of the phenomenon. This is in contrast to materials that, by their appearance and the ways in which they can be manipulated, guide what children do and think. An example of the difference is the pre-made marble run. Instead of creating its own marble run and fighting to make it work, the marble run thought of children. All they have to do is drop the marble and watch it roll. This is very different than using blocks and some sort of gutter material, where they have to deal with slope, corners, intersection parts, and solving the problem of getting the marble to its goal. Another example is the use of clear tubes, droppers, and funnels in water exploration, as described in the teacher's journal above. The materials themselves are open and the movement of the water is visible. A third example is the use of various types of building blocks and materials when investigating structures. In such an investigation, Legos can be temporarily removed because the fact that they fit reduces the challenge of building towers and walls and thus reduces the focus on the forces at play.

Time and space for science

Good scientific investigations take place over a long period of time, both short term and long term. Engaged children may stay with something for significant periods of time, and some children may need time to engage. Typical programming in children's classrooms often militates against inquiry-based learning in science. Short activity times or a choice of 20 or 30 minutes allow children to start but not continue their work. Furthermore, if the scientific work is episodic and not regularly available throughout the week, continuity is lost and the opportunity to draw conclusions is reduced. Science also needs to be discussed and documented. This also takes time. Science needs space. If the children are going to engage with the phenomena in many different ways, the activity may need to spread throughout the classroom and outdoors. Building structures can occur in the block area, on tables, on the sand table. Sprouts need to be placed somewhere, as do plants that grow in other ways and interesting outdoor collections. A shadow investigation might include a shadow puppet theater, a dark corner to play with flashlights and a lamp, and a screen to explore shapes. The implication of this need for space and time is that the focus in a scientific study may require other things to be set aside or changed. The morning circle routine can turn into a science lecture a few times a week. The dramatic play corner can be a shadow puppet theater, and the water table can be closed for washing dishes and bathing dolls.

Discussion and Representation in Science

Discussion and representation are critical to science learning and an important part of the inquiry process and the development of scientific reasoning. In both small and large groups, the discussion encourages children to think about what they have experienced, listen to the experiences of others, and reflect on their ideas. Similarly, role-playing using a variety of media, including drawing, writing and collage, encourages children to carefully observe and reflect on their experiences over time, as well as to develop vocabulary structures and language. George Forman, professor emeritus at the University of Massachusetts, in an unpublished commentary put it this way: “Experience is not the best teacher. It sounds like heresy, but thinking about it, it is the reflection on the experience that makes it educational” (Presentation of the Conference).

The role of the teacher

The teacher's role is central to children's science learning and is complex, informed by their knowledge of children, teaching and learning, and pedagogical knowledge of science. I want to highlight only one of them: pedagogical scientific knowledge. Children's scientific inquiry is guided by the teacher's explicit understanding of the important scientific concepts underlying the approach he has chosen. For example, the children's work with water in the teacher's journal shown above is about pipes and “Water City”, but also about how water flows, a basic property of liquids. Although explicit teaching of the concept is not appropriate, the structure of the experiences and the teacher's facilitation are guided by their understanding of the concepts and how children learn them. His questions, comments, and surveys draw children's attention to the concept, in this case, that water flows and flows down. In the snail study described above, the children were interested in many things: whether snails liked each other, how they had children, how they got into their shells. In the notes, we see the teacher capture one of these interests and a basic characteristic of the behavior and adaptation of animals: how they move. This type of teacher guidance and facilitation builds on each teacher's understanding of the concepts behind the children's work and enables them to encourage children to notice and reflect on key aspects of the phenomenon they are exploring.

For many years, the role of early childhood education has focused on children's social, emotional, and physical development, as well as basic language and numeracy skills. While working with materials is essential to early childhood, it is rare to focus children's thinking on the science of these experiences. Science activities are often seen as vehicles for building vocabulary and skills such as fine motor skills, counting, and color and shape recognition. These activities are not part of long-term explorations or sequenced projects focused on scientific concepts and emphasizing scientific inquiry processes. This is exacerbated when teachers are uncomfortable with science, have little scientific knowledge, and are not confident in their abilities to teach science to children.

In many settings, new insights into children's cognitive potential are not used to broaden and deepen the science curriculum to include deeper and more challenging experiences. Instead, the growing preoccupation with reading reinforced the almost singular focus on learning basic literacy, numeracy, and socialization skills. It is also putting more pressure on responsibility in the early childhood scene, leaving little room for children's rich play and exploration of the world around them.

(Video) Differentiated Instruction: Why, How, and Examples

Exploration of the natural world is a thing of childhood. Science, when viewed as a process of building understanding and developing ideas, is a natural focus in the early childhood program. As described here, children's inquiry into appropriate phenomena is not only the site for building foundational experiences for later scientific learning, but also fertile ground for the development of many cognitive skills. It is also a context in which children can develop and practice many basic literacy and numeracy skills. Ultimately, science is a collaborative enterprise in which working together and discussing ideas is central to practice.

This article is based on collaborative work with Ingrid Chalufour, Cindy Hoisington, and Jeff Winokur that resulted in the publication of the Young Scientist series (Chalufour & Worth, 2003, 2004, 2005) andWorms, Shadows and Swirls(Value and Grollman, 2003).

Bowman, Bárbara T.; Donovan, M.Suzanne; y Burns, M. Susan (eds.). (2001).Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Chalufour, Ingrid y Worth, Karen; con Moriarty, Robin; Winokur, Jeff; y Grollman, Sharon (2003)🇧🇷 Discovering nature with young children(Young Scientist Series). S t. Paul, MN: Red Leaf Press.

Chalufour, Ingrid y Worth, Karen; con Moriarty, Robin; Winokur, Jeff; y Grollman, Sharon. (2004).Construction of structures with young children.(Young Scientist Series). S t. Paul, MN: Red Leaf Press.

Chalufour, Ingrid y Worth, Karen; con Moriarty, Robin; Winokur, Jeff; y Grollman, Sharon (2005)🇧🇷 Exploring the water with young children(Young Scientist Series). S t. Paul, MN: Red Leaf Press.

Duschl, Richard A.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.; y Shouse, Andrew W. (eds.). (2007).Bringing science to school: learning and teaching science in grades K-8.Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Feynman , Richard P. (1997).Surely you are kidding, Mr. Feynman!: Adventures of a curious character.New York: WW Norton.

Michaels, Sara; Shouse, Andrew W.; y Schweingruber, Heidi A. (2007).Ready set science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (nineteen ninety six).National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Worth, Karen y Grollman, Sharon. (2003).Worms, Shadows, and Swirls: Science in the Early Childhood Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

(Video) The Science of Teaching, Effective Education, and Great Schools

Karen is worth it
Science Education Center
Center for Educational Development, Inc.
Calle Capela 55
Newton, MA 02458-1060


What is content and process in science? ›

A “process approach” to science contrasts with the more usual “content approach,” in which the development of students' practical and inquiry skills is seen as secondary to, or a by-product of, the development of their scientific knowledge and understanding.

What is the scientific process in early childhood education? ›

Using the scientific method to explore science with young children provides a systematic model for engaging children in observation, questioning, predicting, experimenting, summarizing, and sharing results. These processes encourage children's use of language, literacy, and mathematics skills in authentic ways.

What is the role of science in the early childhood classroom? ›

Science not only teaches children about the world around them, it can also teach them more about themselves. Learning about the human body from a young age can go a long way in increasing the confidence of children and their understanding of their own bodies and its functions.

Is science both content and process? ›

Science is both content and process.

Science processes cannot exist in a vacuum. They are learned in context. School science should emphasize depth rather breadth, coherence rather than fragmentation, and use of evidence in constructing explanation.

What is the content of science? ›

The content of school science is broadly defined to include specific capacities, understandings, and abilities in science. The content standards are not a science curriculum. Curriculum is the way content is delivered: It includes the structure, organization, balance, and presentation of the content in the classroom.

What are the 3 types of content? ›

The best way to look at the kind of content you're using across your digital landscape, including social media and email marketing, as well as social media and your blog, is to divide it into three types. They are: Creation, Curation, and Creative Curation.

What are the five 5 science processes? ›

The ability to make good observations is also essential to the development of the other science process skills: communicating, classifying, measuring, inferring, and predicting.

What are the processes in science learning? ›

Each activity is expected to facilitates students to develop science process skills such as observing, inferring, predicting, asking questions, constructing hypotheses, designing experiments, applying concepts, and communicating.

What is scientific learning process answer? ›

This section focuses on the kinds of learning in science: learning disciplinary content; using scientific tools; understanding and working with data; developing motivation, interest, and identity; and developing scientific reasoning, epistemological thinking, and an understanding of the nature of science.

Why is science important in the classroom? ›

Beyond the potential scientific breakthroughs, there are individual benefits to learning science, such as developing our ability to ask questions, collect information, organize and test our ideas, solve problems, and apply what we learn.

What are the three main objectives of teaching science to students? ›

The objectives of science teaching are as follows: To provide knowledge of the facts, principles, concepts and laws of science. To develop skills in experimentation, observation, drawing, problem solving and manipulating apparatus. To develop ability to improvise apparatus, organize science exhibitions and fairs.

What are the benefits of science activities for preschoolers? ›

Science education activities provide children with opportunities to develop and practice many different skills and attributes. These include communication skills, collaborative skills, team working and perseverance, as well as analytical, reasoning and problem-solving skills.

What are 3 science process skills? ›

Science process skills are the things that scientists do when they study and investigate. Observing, classifying, communicating, measuring, inferring and predicting are among the thinking skills used by scientists, teachers and students when doing science.

What are 4 types of skills children can gain through play in the early childhood science classroom? ›

Early Childhood Classrooms

Play materials in the classroom are extremely important for multiple developmental perspectives such as cognitive, social/emotional, physical, and language.

What should preschoolers learn in science? ›

“What will happen if…?” and “Why does…?” Preschoolers have the ability to observe, describe, compare, question, predict, experiment and reflect (ii). Physical science is the study of how things move, the structure and properties of matter and how nonliving things change forms (i.e., ice to water).

What is content and process in education? ›

The content involves the curriculum, the information learned, the standards and skills being taught. The process is how students learn this content. And the product is what is produced by students, how they show their learning.

What is an example of a process in science? ›

Examples of chemical processes are oxidation, reduction, hydrogenation, hydrolysis, halogenation, esterification, alkylation, sulfonation, nitrification, polymerization, catalysis, etc. Examples of physical processes are melting, evaporation, condensation, etc.

Why science is considered as a process? ›

Scientific ideas are developed through reasoning. Inferences are logical conclusions based on observable facts. Much of what we know from scientific study is based on inferences from data, whether the object of study is a star or an atom.

What is science content knowledge? ›

Content knowledge generally refers to the facts, concepts, theories, and principles that are taught and learned in specific academic courses, rather than to related skills—such as reading, writing, or researching—that students also learn in school.

What are the content areas in early childhood? ›

The curriculum is based upon Key Developmental Indicators (KDIs) and are 58 skills organized under the five content areas of: Approaches to Learning; Language, Literacy, and Communication; Social and Emotional Development; Physical Development, Health, and Well-Being; and Arts and Sciences.

What are the main contents of the science curriculum? ›

The curriculum content is composed of four strands: Living Things, Materials, Energy and Forces, and Environmental Awareness and Care. These strands, which are subdivided into strand units, outline the concepts and ideas to be explored by children as they work scientifically, and are involved in designing and making.

What is a example of content? ›

Some examples of content include blogs, emailers, newsletters, social media posts, case studies, and more.

What are examples of content types? ›

What are the different content types?
  • Blog posts.
  • Emails.
  • Social media content.
  • Guides.
  • Ebooks.
  • Video content.
  • Webinars.
  • Case studies.
Feb 18, 2022

What are the 5 types of content? ›

Those are:
  • Infographics.
  • Blog content.
  • Podcasts.
  • Videos.
  • Social media.
Aug 5, 2020

What are the 12 science processes? ›

The 12 science process skills stipulated are: (1) observing, (2) classifying, (3) measuring and using numbers, (4) inferring, (5) predicting, (6) communicating, (7) using space-time relations, (8) interpreting data, (9) controlling of variables, (10) defining operationally, (11) hypothesizing, and (12) experimenting.

What is process approach in teaching science? ›

Process-approach teaching is dictated by the need to develop in students a better understanding of the research behavior of scientists, as well as to enable them to acquire inquiry skills in the science classroom. Theoretically, many frameworks are possible for teaching the process of science.

What is the importance of basic science process skills? ›

The science process skills help students to understand phenomena, answer questions, develop theories and discover information (Martin, 2009). They are essential in developing ideas (Harlen & Qualter, 2004) and they increase academic achievement in science learning (Aktamis & Ergin, 2008) .

What is a example of process learning? ›

Doing some research. Talking with others and applying what we already know to the situation (Abstract Conceptualization) Doing something new or doing the same thing in a more sophisticated way based on our learning (Active Experimentation).

What are science process skills activities? ›

The basic science process skills consist of observing (calculating, measuring, classifying, finding relationship of space/time), hypothesizing, planning the experiment, controlling variables, interpreting data, drawing conclusions (inference), predicting, applying, and communicating [3].

What is the process of learning process? ›

There are six interactive components of the learning process: attention, memory, language, processing and organizing, graphomotor (writing) and higher order thinking. These processes interact not only with each other, but also with emotions, classroom climate, behavior, social skills, teachers and family.

What are some examples of scientific questions? ›

20 Big Questions in Science
  • What is the universe made of? Astronomers still cannot account for 95% of the universe. ...
  • How did life begin? ...
  • Are we alone in the universe? ...
  • What makes us human? ...
  • What is consciousness? ...
  • Why do we dream? ...
  • Why is there stuff? ...
  • Are there other universes?

What are the four learning processes? ›

The stages of learning reflect how learners process and assimilate information:
  • Stage 1: Concrete Experience (CE) assimilating information.
  • Stage 2: Reflective Observation (RO) processing information.
  • Stage 3: Abstract Conceptualization (AC) assimilating information.
  • Stage 4: Active Experimentation (AE)

What is science in the classroom? ›

Science in the Classroom (SitC) is a collection of freely available annotated research papers, primarily from the Science family of journals. Science in the Classroom. 41 subscribers. Science in the Classroom Educator Walkthrough.

How do you teach science in the classroom? ›

Methods for teaching science
  1. Lecture (teacher-centred) ...
  2. Hands-on activities (student-centred) ...
  3. Project Based learning (student-centred) ...
  4. Peer-led team learning (student-centred) ...
  5. Flipped learning (student-centred) ...
  6. Differentiation (student-centred) ...
  7. It's up to you! ...
  8. Further enrichment ideas.

How do you engage students in the science classroom? ›

10 Ways To Make Science Class Engaging and Fun For Students
  1. Be silly and enthusiastic about topics. ...
  2. Call in the experts. ...
  3. Use lots of visuals. ...
  4. Make connections to real-world examples. ...
  5. Hands-on and collaborative activities e.g., labs, explorations, experiments, inquiry, design challenges. ...
  6. Keep it at their level.
Oct 6, 2021

What are the main objectives for science learning or teaching? ›

The main objectives of science are: To understand the functional role of nature and explain it in a complete form. To provide knowledge of the laws of nature after verifying them by experiments. To control nature by the applications of results of experiments performed through keen observation.

What are the 5 goals of science education? ›

Some Goals and Objectives of teaching science are:

Development of skills. Development of Problem-solving skills. Nurturing curiosity. Development of thinking abilities.

What is the best approach in teaching science and why is it important? ›

Inquiry-based learning: This approach to teaching offers students an opportunity to ask questions, investigate issues, select methods, and solve problems that have been posed to them by the teacher. The process is based on problem solving as a way to enhance motivation and learning.

Why is it important for preschoolers to learn science subject? ›

Science encourages and teaches children how to discover and wonder about everything in the world around them. Scientific thinking and the desire to explore and investigate can be used to your advantage in the classroom. You can use children's natural curiosity to teach any one of your curricula learning intentions.

What is the most effective way to teach science to children? ›

Simply stated, the best way for kids to learn science is by doing real science. A child can read scientific facts and obtain knowledge from a book. However, when they are fully immersed in the learning process, problem-solving and fully understanding science concepts will begin to come naturally.

What does science mean for preschoolers? ›

Science is the process of learning about the natural world through observation and experimentation. Scientists use evidence, along with active thinking, to explain what is happening in the natural world.

What is teaching for the process and content of science? ›

Teaching the process of science means going beyond the content to help students understand how we know what we know and giving them the tools they need to think scientifically.

What is the most important science process skill? ›


This is the most basic skill in science. Observations are made by using the 5 senses. Good observations are essential in learning the other science process skills.

What are process skills short answer? ›

The process skills are ways of thinking about and interacting with materials and phenomena that can lead to an understanding of new scientific ideas and concepts. By using these skills, students can gather information, test their ideas, and con- struct scientific explanations of the world.

What are 3 strategies you can use to support preschool science? ›

10 Tips to Support Children's Science Learning
  • Value your child's questions. ...
  • Explore and find the answers together. ...
  • Give children time and space to explore. ...
  • Accept that explorations are often messy. ...
  • Learn from mistakes together. ...
  • Invite curiosity. ...
  • Support further exploration.

What are early childhood science process skills? ›

The fundamental science process skills for early childhood are to: (1) observe; (2) communicate; (3) compare; (4) measure; and (5) organize.

What is science in early childhood classroom? ›

Science in early childhood is about providing experiences that can stimulate young children's curiosity and motivate them to become interested in their environment and in the mechanisms of nature. Children are naturally curious about the world around them and this involves of the technological world.

What is an example of content and process? ›

Content is the “story”; opinion, gossip or interpretation that colours much communication. Process is the instructions for handling ideas and matters in the world. As an example of the distinction between process and content, artists paint pictures.

What is content and process approach? ›

Their theories fall into two major categories: content theories and process theories. Content theories of motivation focus on the factors which motivate behavior by rewarding or reinforcing it. Process theories attempt instead to determine how factors that motivate behavior interact with each other.

What is more important content or process of learning? ›

Content is Important, but the Process Matters Most.

What are the 5 processes of science? ›

Here are the five steps.
  • Define a Question to Investigate. As scientists conduct their research, they make observations and collect data. ...
  • Make Predictions. Based on their research and observations, scientists will often come up with a hypothesis. ...
  • Gather Data. ...
  • Analyze the Data. ...
  • Draw Conclusions.

What is the meaning of process in science? ›

We define processes as a coherent series of changes which evolves over time, occurs at various levels and constitutes a phenomenon of interest.

What is process development in science? ›

Process Development Scientists (process chemists) research and develop ways to manufacture products and monitor existing processes and products for quality and efficiency.

What is a process in science? ›

A process is a naturally occurring or designed sequence of changes of properties or attributes of an object or system. In biology, it refers to any of the biological reactions or other events that result in a transformation or change from one state to another.

What is content and process in teaching? ›

The content involves the curriculum, the information learned, the standards and skills being taught. The process is how students learn this content. And the product is what is produced by students, how they show their learning.

What is the process of content? ›

Content creation is the process of generating topic ideas that appeal to your buyer persona, creating written or visual content around those ideas, and making that information accessible to your audience as a blog, video, infographic, or other content formats.

What is the difference between content and process of change? ›

Content is the 'what': the topic or focus of change, the problem, the opportunity, the decision or the technical content. It's what you're going to be talking about! Process on the other hand, is the 'how' we facilitate the event, where we discuss the 'what'.

What is basic processes of science? ›

Science process skills are the things that scientists do when they study and investigate. Observing, classifying, communicating, measuring, inferring and predicting are among the thinking skills used by scientists, teachers and students when doing science.

What are the five basic processes of science? ›

Here are the five steps.
  • Define a Question to Investigate. As scientists conduct their research, they make observations and collect data. ...
  • Make Predictions. Based on their research and observations, scientists will often come up with a hypothesis. ...
  • Gather Data. ...
  • Analyze the Data. ...
  • Draw Conclusions.

What are the 5 science process skills? ›


The ability to make good observations is also essential to the development of the other science process skills: communicating, classifying, measuring, inferring, and predicting.

Why is it important to have both process and content lessons? ›

Content-based lessons build student knowledge of curriculum topics, while process-based lessons increase student understanding of them by challenging them to analyze and think critically about what they learn.

What is the important of content in learning process? ›

Content is at the heart of learning. Learners come to postsecondary institutions to discover new information, identify important problems and their solutions, encounter new ideas, and learn new processes. In short, engaging with content is nearly always a learner's primary goal.

What are the four types of content? ›

There are four content categories used in content creation and marketing—attraction, authority, affinity, and action. It's important to note that the four content categories are not mutually exclusive, and a single piece of content will often fit in multiple categories.

What is the relationship between content and process? ›

Content is simply the 'what' of things, and process is the 'how' of things. It's often easier to come up with a 'what' than it is to come up with a 'how'. As you'll learn in this article, the latter is more important than the former. We usually talk about the content and process distinction in the context of therapy.

What are the six types of content? ›

In order to effectively reach your ideal audience, make sure these six types of content are included in your toolkit.
  • Blog posts. ...
  • Guest-contributed articles. ...
  • Press mentions. ...
  • Email marketing. ...
  • Gated content. ...
  • Video content.
Nov 19, 2019

What is content approach and process approach? ›

There are two important types of motivation theory: content and process. Content models of motivation focus on what people need in their lives (i.e. what motivates them). Process theories look at the psychological and behavioral processes that affect and individual's motivation.


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